Type I an Type II Diabetes Mellitus Medication Treatment Options

Insulin helps blood sugar enter cells where it is utilized by the body to produce energy.  In Type I Diabetes, sometimes called Insulin Dependent Diabetes, the pancreas does not produce, or produces very little insulin.  Type II Diabetes, termed Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes, is a situation where the body has, over the years, become resistant to the effects of insulin or simply does not make enough insulin to keep up with the intake of sugar.

As technology has advanced, many different medication therapies have emerged for the treatment of both Type I and type II Diabetes.  In this blog, I will summarize the current FDA approved medications available for both Type I and Type II Diabetes treatment.  Please be aware, this is only a partial list of current therapies; however, it does include the most common medication treatments.  Over time I will continue to add to the blog in order to complete the list.  Medication Specific Counseling Sessions may be found at the AudibleRx website for any of the medications listed in this blog.

Insulin

Insulin treatment has been refined significantly over the past 20 years.  Initially, bovine, or pig, insulin was common practice.  Later, technology advance to produce synthetic insulin in the laboratory.  Included here are the two most recent developments in synthetic insulin therapy.

·         Insulin Lispro (HumalogTM) is a synthetic form of insulin very similar (in fact almost identical) to human insulin.  This medication helps regulate sugar metabolism by stimulating the transfer of sugar from the blood to the cells and also by decreasing the production of sugar by the liver.  Insulin Lispro starts working faster and lasts for a shorter time than all other insulins.  This insulin is usually used in conjunction with longer acting insulins to treat type 1 diabetes and may also be used in conjunction with longer acting insulins or oral diabetic medications to treat type 2 diabetes. 

·         Insulin Glargine (LantusTM) is a synthetic form of insulin very similar to human insulin.  This medication help regulate sugar metabolism by stimulating the transfer of sugar from the blood to the cells and also by decreasing the production of sugar by the liver.  Insulin Glargine starts working slower and lasts for a longer time than all other insulins.  This insulin may be used in conjunction with a shorter acting insulins to treat type 1 diabetes and may also be used in conjunction with a shorter acting insulins or oral diabetic medications to treat type 2 diabetes.

Type II Oral Medication

·         Sulfonylureas: Glimepiride (AmarylTM), Glipizide (GlucotrolTM), Glyburide (DiabetaTM, MicronaseTM)   This category of medications stimulates specific cells in the pancreas to release more insulin. 

·         Biguanides: Metformin (GlucophageTM) Metformin works by decreasing production of glucose in the liver, decreasing absorption of glucose in the intestines and increasing our body’s sensitivity to the insulin we already produce.  If you take metformin, please take the time to educate yourself about the Black Box Warning by listening to the AudibleRx counseling session discussing metformin or by calling your pharmacist and discussing it. 

·         Thiazolidinediones:  Pioglitazone (ActosTM), Rosiglitazone (AvandiaTM)    This category of medications simply works by sensitizing the body to its own insulin.  .  If you take one of these medications, please take the time to educate yourself about the Black Box Warning by listening to the AudibleRx counseling session discussing pioglitazone or rosiglitazone or by calling your pharmacist and discussing it. 

·         DPP-4 Inhibitors:  Linagliptin (TradjentaTM), Sitagliptin (JanuviaTM)   The body produces natural hormones called incretins.  These incretins are produced at a low level on a regular basis, and in a larger amount in response to eating.  Incretins help control the body’s natural release of insulin in response to blood sugar.  The issue is, there is this enzyme called DPP-4 which breaks down the incretins really quickly.  This category of mediations works to block this enzyme so that the incretins stay around longer to help the body balance its own blood sugar.

To learn about the OBRA 90 specific counseling information on any of the medications listed in this blog, please register to become amember of AudibleRx.  As a member, you will have full access to all of the Mediation Specific Counseling Sessions.

You may also be interested in reading:

·         A1C Test, what is it?

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Thanks
Steve

Copyright AudibleRx (TM), all rights reserved.

Is Diabetes Contagious?

As we know, many disease states are considered contagious, meaning; they may be passed from one individual to another through bodily secretions or the like.  My question to you; is diabetes considered a contagious disease?

Type I diabetes, which in the past has been labeled as insulin dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, is a situation where the pancreas does not produce, or produces very little insulin.  Insulin helps blood sugar enter cells where it is used to produce energy.   This disease state is considered a genetic disease, or, may sometimes be caused from exposure to certain viruses.  Although Type I diabetes usually appears during childhood, it has been shown to afflict individuals during their adult life. 

Type I diabetes has no known cure.  Insulin therapy has advanced quite significantly, and with proper blood sugar monitoring and effective dosing, diabetics may live healthy, normal lives, well into their old age.  It would be a stretch to even remotely consider Type I diabetes as a contagious disease. 

Type II diabetes is a situation where the body has, over the years, become resistant to the effects of insulin or simply does not make enough insulin to keep up with the intake of sugar.  Type II diabetes has been labeled adult-onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes.  This disease state has historically been more common in adults; however, increasing in numbers are children diagnosed with Type II diabetes.

As with Type I diabetes, Type II diabetes has no cure; however, it may be managed quite well with a dedicated effort at monitoring the diet, increasing exercise, and if necessary, medication treatment.  Type II diabetes would not be considered a contagious disease in the traditional sense; however, it is not uncommon to see parents with Type II diabetes who also have grown children who have the same disease.  Does this mean that the children acquired Type II diabetes completely on their own, or were they more likely to become diagnosed with this disease because their parents are also Type II diabetic patients?

The argument continues that quite often we learn our habits from our parents.  If our parents are not conscious of healthy eating habits, it is not likely that their children will initially be conscious of healthy eating habits.  If the parents are not regularly active and exercising, it is also more likely that their children will be less active and not prone to exercise.  This is not the traditional course of a contagious disease; however, it very well may follow a pattern that if a child grows up in a household where the mother and father are both Type II diabetics, it is pretty darn likely that the child may eventually become a Type II diabetic also. 

To learn about the different categories of medications used to treat Type I and Type II diabetes, please register to become amember of AudibleRxTM and then have full access to all of the Medication Specific Counseling SessionsTM for a full five years.  To see which medications are currently available in digital audio counseling session format, please visit theMedications page at the AudibleRxTM website. 

Thanks
Steve

Copyright AudibleRx (TM), all rights reserved. Please do not copy or publish or distribute without consent and approval from AudibleRx (TM).

Pharmaceutical Interest

Lately, I have been hanging around a website called www.RxEconsult.com.  I find that the folks that run the website and I have similar interests.  We want to help bring medication information into a forum where other people may read, question, respond to and discuss medication related topics.  Over the past few months I have posted a handful of Pharmacy Topic articles at the RxEconsult site and I thought I would like to share them with my blog followers.


While you are at the site, take a moment and look at some of the other 200+ business and health care related articles.  Who knows, you might just find the inspiration you have been looking for!

Thanks
Steve

Copyright AudibleRx (TM), all rights reserved. Please do not copy or publish or distribute without consent and approval from AudibleRx (TM).

Integrity, Follow-up, Clinical Responsibility & Communication

My friend, Omudhome Ogbru, Pharm.D. over at www.RxEconsult.com sent me a note the other day asking me if I would take some time and put down in words the answer to the question, "What is pharmacy?"  RxEconsult is an online community of businesses and professionals in healthcare and related field who share what they know with others in the spirit of collaboration. 

This was a intriguing question.  I have been a member of this particular online pharmacy network for over six months now and have found it quite useful for meeting other pharmacy entrepreneurs and also a great forum for getting some of my articles published.  I am able to put a couple lines at the bottom of each article directing folks back to my AudibleRx website, so I try to put something new and original up on the site every couple weeks.

In describing what pharmacy is to me, I employed a recent story from my time at the pharmacy that involves a pharmacist, a patient and a physician.  The two day resolution of the situation tells a good story of, in my humble opinion, what pharmacy is all about.  Please take a moment to follow this link to RxEconsult and read the article.

http://www.rxeconsult.com/healthcare-articles/What-is-Pharmacy--347/

I appreciate any comments you may have about what pharmacy means to you.

Thanks
Steve

Copyright AudibleRx (TM), all rights reserved. Please do not copy or publish or distribute without consent and approval from AudibleRx (TM).